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TMF Building Blocks to Inspection Readiness Success

An often-overlooked aspect of a clinical research study is the Trial Master File (TMF). As the backbone of every trial, the TMF houses all of the documentation describing all study activity in compliance with Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidelines and approved protocols. With all of the moving parts involved in and outside of the TMF, it can be a constant challenge for all parties to keep up with. This is why it is so crucial to establish a foundation for success from the very beginning of a study.  

This article will discuss the building blocks of the Trial Master File in regards to how you and your team can set up, organize and manage an inspection-ready TMF.

How should you organize the Trial Master File?

Although there are TMF resources available such as the TMF Reference Model from Drug Information Association (DIA) and the general list of Essential Documents outlined in section 8 of the ICH E6 GCP guideline, it can be easy to lose track of documents without the proper TMF structures in place for your clinical trial. Overall, the TMF should be set up and divided into the following sections:  

  • Global/Core Files – This section contains documents used on a global scale. Trial-related, clinical or internal team reports, and clinical documents and templates are included here.
  • Country Files – This section contains country-specific documents. You can find documents from regulatory authorities and Ethics Committees, investigational product details, and country-specific documents and templates.
  • Local/Site Files – This section contains documents relevant to the sites participating in the study. There is usually documentation on Subject Information, site correspondence, monitoring, local laboratories, Institutional Review Boards/Ethics Committees, and site-specific investigational products or devices.

How do you manage the Trial Master File?

Management of the TMF can make or break a clinical trial. Without noting down study activity, we cannot prove that it even happened at all. While updating the TMF is not always the priority day-to-day, implementing measures and processes will help prevent any incomplete documentation or failed inspections in the future. Below are some strategies you can keep in mind for maintaining the TMF.

  • Training

First and foremost, everyone needs to be on the same page. From individual team members at a site to the CRO, each person and organization should understand the importance of maintaining the TMF and the procedures needed to do so. Make sure that the processes they are trained on follow the teams’ natural workflow if possible.

  • Clear Expectations

Even with the best training, sometimes we can go astray from protocol. The best way to keep everyone accountable is to have clearly defined roles, responsibilities, and expectations. Not only does everyone know what their part is in maintaining the TMF, but it also allows stakeholders to have an idea of how the study is progressing.

  • Self-Checks

Maintenance is not always enough when it comes to getting the TMF inspection ready. The team should also be conducting regular Quality Checks (QCs) of the TMF to ensure that it is up-to-date with all of the right documentation. Although time-consuming, it can make you more confident come inspection time.  

  • Bottom-line: Document Everything

At the end of the day, all of the effort put into managing trials will be in vain if it is not documented in the TMF. It’s not a matter of if you did the work, but rather, how you did it. Showing auditors a clear picture of the clinical trial with the documentation to back it up will make inspections easier for everyone.


By simplifying the organization and management of the TMF, you are also taking your team to the next level of enhancing your current TMF processes resulting in having a successful inspection from any regulatory authority.

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